Two-dimensional calixarene-based metal-organic coordination networks of tunable crystallinity
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A flexible and versatile method to fabricate two-dimensional metal–organic coordination networks (MOCNs) by bottom-up self-assembly is described. 2D crystalline layers were formed at the air–water interface, coordinated by ions from the liquid phase, and transferred onto a solid substrate with their crystallinity preserved. By using an inherently three-dimensional amphiphile, namely 25,26,27,28-tetrapropoxycalixarene-5,11,17,23-tetracarboxylic acid, and a copper metal node, large and monocrystalline dendritic MOCN domains were formed. The method described allows for the fabrication of monolayers of tunable crystallinity on liquid and solid substrates. It can be applied to a large range of differently functionalized organic building blocks, also beyond macrocycles, which can be interconnected by diverse metal nodes.